You get the following error immediately after installing the Coveo for Sitecore package:
Could not get object from factory: remoteListFactory. Object id: contentSearch/indexConfigurations/defaultLuceneIndexConfiguration//exclude[@hint='list:ExcludeField'] (method: Sitecore.Configuration.Factory.CreateObject(XmlNode configNode, String parameters, Boolean assert, IFactoryHelper helper)).
Coveo assumes that you're using Lucene as you're default indexing engine, and it references the defaultLuceneIndexConfiguration configuration node. If you're using Solr, then it's likely that you don't have that node, but instead have its Solr equivalent - defaultSolrIndexConfiguration.
You could go into the Coveo.SearchProvider.config file and change the offending line directly. But you should probably follow Sitecore and Coveo's good practice guidelines and use a patch.
Add the following XML snippet to the defaultIndexConfiguration node of Coveo.SearchProvider.Custom.config
This will change the configuration to reference the correct Solr node instead of the Lucene one.